The Kiss of Deuterium & the embrace of Deuteronomy “I
watch this video (below) each night like a silent prayer to calm myself to
sleep peacefully knowing that the nation that drops the BIG ONE that destroys
most of the planet will be my own nation of birth, USA, or its
most powerful and entrusted and beloved ally, Israel. Not some foreign
enemy! God forbid!” – source unknown https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tl3_0D2h8BY SECRETS OF
der Waals Water bonds & Krypton & Xenon & Argon & Neon MANY
“I watch this video (below) each night like a silent prayer to calm myself to sleep peacefully knowing that the nation that drops the BIG ONE that destroys most of the planet will be my own nation of birth, USA, or its most powerful and entrusted and beloved ally, Israel. Not some foreign enemy! God forbid!” – source unknown
SECRETS OF LIGHTNING
Van der Waals Water bonds & Krypton & Xenon & Argon & Neon
MANY"CONSTANTS" USED IN PHYSICS ARE NOT REAL
There are very intricate, precise energy levels that exist for both normal hydrogen (with an electron bound to a proton) and its heavy isotope DEUTERIUM (with an electron bound to a deuteron, which contains both a proton and a neutron), and these energy levels are just slightly different from one another. If you can measure the spectra of these different quasars and look for these precise, very-slightly-different fine and hyperfine transitions, you would be able to measure α at the location of the quasar. https://bigthink.com/starts-with-a-bang/fundamental-physics-constants-not-constant/
Everywhere we look in the universe — at every quasar and every example of fine or hyperfine structure in the intervening, absorptive gas clouds — we see that there are tiny, minuscule, but non-negligible shifts in those transition ratios. At the level of a few parts-per-million, the value of the fine-structure CONSTANT, α, appears to observationally vary. What is remarkable is that this variation was not expected or anticipated but has robustly shown up, over and over again, in quasar absorption studies going all the way back to 1999. Spatial variations in the fine-structure CONSTANT are inferred from quasar absorption data.
Unfortunately, these individual variations between systems are significantly larger than any overall variation seen in space or time, casting severe doubt on those conclusions. In 1999 it was shown using a Very Large Telescope --the exact opposite effect: that the fine-structure constant, α, was larger in the past, and has been slowly decreasing ever since! Subsequently, Webb’s team obtained more data with greater numbers of quasars, spanning larger fractions of the sky and cutting across cosmic time. A simple time-variation was no longer consistent with the data, as variations were inconsistent from place-to-place and did not scale directly with either redshift or direction. Overall, there were some places where α appeared larger than average and others where it appeared smaller, but there was no overall pattern.
The Secret Life of Lightning, Amorphous Solid Water (ASW), SUPERCOOLED LIQUID WATER, the 4 Main Noble Elements Argon, Xenon, Krypton, Neon, and how they are all interconnected -- Van der Waals & Krypton & Xenon & Argon & Neon
How we cannot survive without these "unreactive" forces.
HYDRODYNAMICS OF THE EARTH’S CORE
The Real Secrets Hidden in Antarctica Revealed
Mysterious ICE forms of Water greatly affect both Poles, North & South, and the circulation of ocean water and various global atmospheres, and the patterns of geomagnetic forces encircling the planet. ANTARCTICA holds the key and also retains many secrets relating to Man’s history on the Earth, and to the most recent physical manifestations and forms of Mother Earth, as recorded in written history, going back to perhaps even 1850 BC. The same James Van Allen who described the deadly Van Allen radiation belts outside of our ionosphere, also participated in post WW2 exploration teams and research facilities at the South Pole, Antarctica, following in the earlier footsteps of Admiral Richard E Byrd.
HAARP (High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program) and Aurora Geomagnetic Anomalies
How does electromagnetic energy from the Poles control and modify the Earth’s weather? Many scientists assert that weather is made and controlled by the South Pole and hidden mysteries of Antarctica.
In 1959 the global Antarctic International Treaty was signed, to slow down the competitive exploration of the Poles for oil, uranium, food, and especially for the development of nuclear launch bases and military outposts and secretive classified research facilities. JFK called for mutually verifiable inspections from all sides (USA/USSR/Canada/Norway + other big players), but the very next day after his assassination all media coverage of this theme seems to have been blanketed in snowy silence. During Kennedy’s rule, had the US & USSR & a multitude of other nations set off a nuke in the upper atmosphere above Antarctica to create an EMP and an “Aurora Effect”?
Watch this video and reflect on the likelihood that the HAARP project and similar technologies never got truly snowed under as the DoD told us in the late 1990s.
CURRENT RESEARCH ON “UNREACTIVE” CHEMISTRY OF THE FOUR MAIN NOBLE GASES & THE NATURE OF AMORPHOUS SOLID WATER AND SUPERCOOLED LIQUID WATER
Surface Processes on Interstellar Amorphous Solid Water (ASW): Adsorption, Diffusion, Tunneling Reactions, and Nuclear-Spin Conversion, Tetsuya Hama and Naoki Watanabe*
Institute of Low Temperature Science, Hokkaido University, N19W8 Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0819, Japan, Chem. Rev., 2013, 113 (12), pp 8783–8839, DOI: 10.1021/cr4000978
of physicochemical processes of neutral species on the ASW surface, concentrating on surface dynamics, quantum-tunneling
reactions, and NSC, which are all
closely related to chemical evolution in dense interstellar clouds. Recent
developments in experimental methods and advances in theory have answered a
number of questions in astronomy, and at the same time a variety of further
challenges have arisen alongside this progress. We first reviewed the present
state of knowledge with respect to the
structure and physical properties of ASW, as well as the surface physics of
adsorbed species, focusing on H atoms and recombination dynamics yielding H2,
in sections 2 and 3. There are multiple potential sites of different depths
for adsorption and diffusion on the ASW surface. However, much less is known
about the molecular-level structure of ASW at cryogenic temperatures, which
is one of the important open issues in
interstellar chemistry. In section 4 we highlighted chemical reactions on
surfaces at low temperatures leading to the formation of astrochemically
relevant molecules (H2O, H2CO, CH 3OH, and CO2) and discussed the role of
quantum tunneling. In dense clouds, where temperatures are as low as 10 K, the
long-time interaction between reactants on ice mantles enables reactions with
small cross sections to occur. Naoki
Watanabe received a Ph.D. degree in atomic and molecular physics
from Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan) in 1993. Until 1996, he worked as a
postdoctoral researcher at RIKEN (Japan) on the photoionization processes of
highly charged ions and molecules using synchrotron radiation. In 2000–2001, he
was a visiting researcher at University College London (U.K.). Since having
been appointed as a staff member at the ILTS at Hokkaido University in 1996, he
has been studying the physics and chemistry on solid surfaces, especially solid water, at very low temperatures,
which is relevant to chemical evolution in space. He is currently a
professor at the ILTS, and his current research interests cover gas-phase
reactions, including clusters at low temperatures. http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/11/09/1700103114 Supercooled and glassy
water: Metastable liquid(s), amorphous solid(s), and a no-man’s land Philip
H. Handle, Thomas Loerting, and Francesco Sciortino PNAS
published ahead of print November 13, 2017 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1700103114 Water, the molecule of life,
is literally everywhere. It covers the Earth’s surface in the form of lakes,
rivers, oceans, ice caps, and glaciers. It fills vast underground caverns and
it resides in our atmosphere as vapor or in clouds. However, water is not
restricted to Earth. It is found on the planets of our solar system and their
moons and on asteroids and comets (1), possibly in its glass
(i.e., amorphous ice) form (2). Water as an amorphous
solid is also abundant in the interstellar medium (3), where it may play a
fundamental role in the formation of complex organic molecules such as amino
acids and sugars (4). In light of this
ubiquity, it is not surprising that the scientific literature concerned with
water and water solutions is immense. May
13, 2016 - Physicists measure van der
Waals forces of individual XENON atoms for the first time, May 13, 2016,
University of Basel https://phys.org/news/2016-05-physicists-van-der-waals-individual.html https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4869171/ Van der Waals
interactions and the limits of isolated atom models at Xenon, Krypton, Argon
Commun. 2016; 7: 11559. Published
online 2016 May 13. doi: 10.1038/ncomms11559 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4869171/ Van der Waals &
Krypton & Xenon & Argon & Neon, How we cannot survive without these
unreactive forces North
& South POLAR FIELD REVERSALS: "Although we understand the basics of why CME's happen," he
continued, "the details are still unclear. What makes the fields unstable?
How rapid is the onset of the explosion? What's the detailed relationship
between flares and CME's? All these questions are being actively researched,
and we still can't predict CME events with any reasonable degree of accuracy."
Naoki Watanabe received a Ph.D. degree in atomic and molecular physics from Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan) in 1993. Until 1996, he worked as a postdoctoral researcher at RIKEN (Japan) on the photoionization processes of highly charged ions and molecules using synchrotron radiation. In 2000–2001, he was a visiting researcher at University College London (U.K.). Since having been appointed as a staff member at the ILTS at Hokkaido University in 1996, he has been studying the physics and chemistry on solid surfaces, especially solid water, at very low temperatures, which is relevant to chemical evolution in space. He is currently a professor at the ILTS, and his current research interests cover gas-phase reactions, including clusters at low temperatures.
Supercooled and glassy water: Metastable liquid(s), amorphous solid(s), and a no-man’s land
Philip H. Handle, Thomas Loerting, and Francesco Sciortino
PNAS published ahead of print November 13, 2017 https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1700103114
Water, the molecule of life, is literally everywhere. It covers the Earth’s surface in the form of lakes, rivers, oceans, ice caps, and glaciers. It fills vast underground caverns and it resides in our atmosphere as vapor or in clouds. However, water is not restricted to Earth. It is found on the planets of our solar system and their moons and on asteroids and comets (1), possibly in its glass (i.e., amorphous ice) form (2). Water as an amorphous solid is also abundant in the interstellar medium (3), where it may play a fundamental role in the formation of complex organic molecules such as amino acids and sugars (4). In light of this ubiquity, it is not surprising that the scientific literature concerned with water and water solutions is immense.
May 13, 2016 - Physicists measure van der Waals forces of individual XENON atoms for the first time, May 13, 2016, University of Basel
Van der Waals interactions and the limits of isolated atom models at Xenon, Krypton, Argon interfaces
Nat Commun. 2016; 7: 11559.
Published online 2016 May 13. doi: 10.1038/ncomms11559
Van der Waals & Krypton & Xenon & Argon & Neon, How we cannot survive without these unreactive forces
North & South POLAR FIELD REVERSALS:
"Although we understand the basics of why CME's happen," he continued, "the details are still unclear. What makes the fields unstable? How rapid is the onset of the explosion? What's the detailed relationship between flares and CME's? All these questions are being actively researched, and we still can't predict CME events with any reasonable degree of accuracy."
"Polar reversals are permanently documented in the rock record from geologic and volcanic activity," so the Earth is no newcomer to violent reversals of north and south poles! Today, the north pole deflects VECTORS of penetration RIGHTwards, or clockwise. This is known as the CORIOLIS Effect. The SOUTH POLE deflects vectors of penetration LEFTwards, or counter-clockwise. One can compare this, if for a mere mental exercise only, with the ancient Sanskrit "svastika", which is a Greek Cross with arms going counter-clockwise. The Third Reich's Swastika is a bad copy of this ancient Sanskrit symbol, which somehow goes in the wrong CLOCKWISE direction.
LOOK BELOW FOR COMPARISON!
The NAZI clockwise Swastika [by motion]
The ancient Indian [absolutely NON-TIBETAN] Counter-Clockwise [by motion]—the Svestika
===>> The northern clockwise Coriolis effect has a gravitational field THAT DEFLECTS ALL SUNLIGHT!!
The Planets and Our Cosmos have a Counter-clockwise motion.
Comets and Asteroids [includes meteors] have a clockwise motion.
Halley's Comet passed bringing its clockwise fields at the time of the Exodus in the Bible [Moses, et al.]. The Maccabean Revolt of 132-135 AD lead by Bar Kokhba was at a time of a Halley's Comet fly-by [FLIES-by] also. "Bar Kokhba" means "Son of the Comet," and "Lord of the Flies" ... the tail of the comet long associated with the vengeful blade of a sword.
Lightning – The mysterious and enigmatic details of the charging process are still being studied by scientists, but there is a bit of general agreement on some of the basic concepts of thunderstorm electrification. In a process not well understood, a bidirectional channel of ionized air, called a "leader" is initiated between oppositely-charged regions in a thundercloud. Leaders are electrically conductive channels of ionized gas that propagate through, or are otherwise attracted to, regions with a charge opposite of that of the leader tip. The negative end of the bidirectional leader fills a positive charge region, also called a well, inside the cloud while the positive end fills a negative charge well. Leaders often split, forming branches in a tree-like pattern. In addition, negative and some positive leaders travel in a discontinuous fashion, in a process called "stepping". The resulting jerky movement of the leaders can be readily observed in slow-motion videos of lightning flashes. Initiation of the lightning leaders is not well understood. The electric field strength within the thundercloud is not typically large enough to initiate this process by itself. Many hypotheses have been proposed.
ANTI-CHAIN REACTION, ANTI-RADIATION ELEMENTS & Inert to CHEMICAL BONDS
(Ar; Kr; Xe; Ne; & H2O van der Waals chemistry)
Van der Waals mystery bonding nature of WATER, being the weakest of the weak chemical forces, at times in much the same unreactive category as the main 4 Noble elements in the Periodic Table.
http://www.coastalpost.com/96/5/5.htm Why HAARP is so dangerous (1995)
Krypton (from Ancient Greek: κρυπτός, kryptos means "the hidden one")
Like the other main 4 noble elements, krypton is highly chemically unreactive. Earth has retained all of the noble elements that were present at its formation except helium. Krypton's concentration in the atmosphere is about 1 ppm. It can be extracted from liquid air by fractional distillation. The amount of krypton in space is uncertain, because measurement is derived from meteoric activity and solar winds. The first measurements suggest an abundance of krypton in space . Van der Waals radius, 202 pm
Argon -- The name "argon" is derived from the Greek word ἀργόν, neuter singular form of ἀργός meaning "lazy" or "inactive", as a reference to the fact that the element undergoes almost no chemical reactions. Argon is the third-most abundant gas in the Earth's atmosphere, at 0.934% (9340 ppmv). It is more than twice as abundant as water vapor (which averages about 4000 ppmv, but varies greatly), 23 times as abundant as carbon dioxide (400 ppmv), and more than 500 times as abundant as neon (18 ppmv). Argon has approximately the same solubility in water as oxygen and is 2.5 times more soluble in water than nitrogen. Argon is colorless, odorless, nonflammable and nontoxic as a solid, liquid or gas.] Argon is chemically inert under most conditions and forms no confirmed stable compounds at room temperature. Argon's complete octet of electrons indicates full s and p subshells. This full valence shell makes argon very stable and extremely resistant to bonding with other elements.
Xenon --the name xenon for this gas from the Greek word ξένον [xenon], neuter singular form of ξένος [xenos], meaning 'foreign(er)', 'strange(r)', or 'guest'; generally unreactive, xenon can undergo a very few chemical reactions due to its unreactivity. XENON can stop nuclear chain reactions! Russian
toxicologist Nikolay V. Lazarev apparently studied xenon anesthesia in 1941, the first published report confirming xenon anesthesia was in 1946 by American medical researcher John H. Lawrence, who experimented on mice. Xenon was first used as a surgical anesthetic in 1951 by American anesthesiologist Stuart C. Cullen, who successfully used it with two patients. Xenon and the other noble gases were for a long time considered to be completely chemically inert and not able to form compounds. Xenon is a member of the zero-valence elements that are called noble or inert gases. It is inert to most common chemical reactions (such as combustion, for example) because the outer valence shell contains eight electrons. This produces a stable, minimum energy configuration in which the outer electrons are tightly bound. Worldwide production of xenon in 1998 was estimated at 5,000–7,000 m3. Because of its scarcity, xenon is much more expensive than the lighter noble gases—approximate prices for the purchase of small quantities in Europe in 1999 were 10 €/L for xenon, 1 €/L for krypton, and 0.20 €/L for neon, while the much more plentiful argon costs less than a cent per liter. 135Xe has a huge cross section for thermal neutrons, 2.6×106 barns, and operates as a neutron absorber or "poison" that can slow or stop the chain reaction after a period of operation. This was discovered in the earliest nuclear reactors built by the American Manhattan Project for plutonium production.
Neon -- The name neon is derived from the Greek word, νέον (neos), meaning new. Neon is chemically inert, and no uncharged neon compounds are known. The compounds of neon currently known include ionic molecules, molecules held together by van der Waals forces . Neon plasma has the most intense light discharge at normal voltages and currents of all the noble gases. 20Ne-enriched components are attributed to exotic primordial rare gas components in the Earth, possibly representing solar neon. Elevated 20Ne abundances are found in diamonds, further suggesting a solar neon reservoir in the Earth. Stable isotopes of neon are produced in stars.
FLUORINE -- It is IMPOSSIBLE to free fluorine by CHEMICAL means [even WORSE than silicates].
SILICATES are completely non-reactive in solution; Fluorines cannot be freed by ANY chemical means!] No other element is powerful enough as an OXIDIZING agent to replace it.
Fluorine is extremely important in the manufacture of high OCTANE fuels, as a catalyst. The elemental gas of fluorine from electrolysis of ANHYDROUS hydrogen fluoride (HF) is used as an oxidizer in ROCKET FUELS. Fluorine has an EXTREME ability to attract ELECTRONS, thereby making it of invaluable assistance to SILICATES. It is a very small ION, and forms many stable complexes with positive ions, especially HEXAFLUOROSILICATE and HEXAFLUOROALUMINATE.
Fluorine is absolutely CRITICAL in separating URANIUM-235 from URANIUM-238. This is currently a hotly debated topic and "industrial hygiene" issue at the Paducah, KENTUCKY Gaseous Diffusion Plant involving the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), in which contaminated workers are joining in a class action lawsuit.
Why Fluorine is super evil  – it bonds for “eternity” to nearly everything and never lets go
Fluorine is a chemical element with symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive.
Industrial production of fluorine gas for uranium enrichment, its largest application, began during the Manhattan Project in World War II. About half of mined fluorite used in steelmaking. The rest of the fluorite is converted into corrosive hydrogen fluoride en route to various organic fluorides, or into cryolite which plays a key role in aluminum refining. Fluorine has a high electron affinity, second only to chlorine, and has the highest electronegativity of any element, in fact, its super high electronegativity accounts for fluorine's easy dissociation, high reactivity, and fiercely strong bonds to non-fluorine atoms. Initial studies on fluorine were so dangerous that several 19th-century experimenters were deemed "fluorine martyrs" after misfortunes with hydrofluoric acid. Isolation of elemental fluorine was hindered by the extreme corrosiveness of both elemental fluorine itself and hydrogen fluoride, as well as the lack of a simple and suitable electrolyte. The Frigidaire division of General Motors (GM) experimented with chlorofluorocarbon refrigerants in the late 1920s, and Kinetic Chemicals was formed as a joint venture between GM and DuPont in 1930 hoping to market Freon-12 CCl 2F2)as one such refrigerant. It replaced earlier and more toxic compounds, increased demand for kitchen refrigerators, and became profitable; by 1949 DuPont had bought out Kinetic and marketed several other Freon compounds.[ Polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) was serendipitously discovered in 1938 by Roy J. Plunkett while working on refrigerants at Kinetic, and its superlative chemical and thermal resistance lent it to accelerated commercialization and mass production by 1941.
Where did all the xenon go?
November 7, 2014 by Anne M Stark, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2014-11-xenon.html#jCp
Do you know where your xenon is? Maybe it's hanging out with iron and nickel in the Earth's core March 1, 2018, Carnegie Institution for Science
Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-03-xenon-iron-nickel-earth-core.html#jCp
HUMANS STILL CAN'T GO THROUGH THE VAN ALLEN RADIATION BELT
"Surrounding the Earth, beginning at an altitude of 1,000 miles and extending an additional 25,000 miles, lie lethal bands of radiation called the Van Allen radiation belts." Current human science and technology still has NO SOLUTION to the challenge of surviving the radiation of this Belt of Gamma Ray Death, nor even in going further out in space beyond our own IONOSPHERE, not in space craft materials science nor in space suit materials nor construction. Sibrel tells me. "Recently uncovered footage of the crew of the Apollo 11 staging part of their mission proves that the astronauts never made it beyond Earth orbit." Kaysing reckons that the Challenger space shuttle really did blow up in 1981, but that it was no accident. It was exploded by Nasa because "Christa McAuliffe, the only civilian and only woman aboard, refused to go along with the lie that you couldn't see stars in space. So they blew her up, along with six other people, to keep that lie under wraps."
NASA engineer admits they can't get past the Van Allen Belts
Go to minute 3:03 and feast your unradiated ears on the truth that only UNMANNED space flights have a chance to make it through the lethal Van Allen Radiation Belts.... https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4O5dPsu66Kw
Apollo Lunar Astronauts Show High Deep Space Radiation Effects
The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether mortality rates due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, accidents and all other causes of death differ in (1) astronauts who never flew orbital missions in space, (2) astronauts who flew only in low Earth orbit (LEO), and (3) Apollo lunar astronauts, the only humans to have traveled beyond Earth's ionosphere.
The VAN ALLEN RADIATION BELT is a donut shaped radiation zone surrounding our equator. The magnetic field around earth is tear- shaped, and the earth spins like a top.
FIRE [includes Sulfur/Phosphorus/Volcanoes]
& WATER [includes Glaciers & Supercooled Liquid Water & Amorphous Solid Water (ASW) ]
Argon, FIRE, meaning "inactive" in Greek, one of the 7 constituents of ANOMALOUS COSMIC RAYS of Cosmic Plasma.
Neon, ICE, meaning "liquid air" in Greek, one of the 7 constants of ANOMALOUS COSMIC RAYS of Cosmic Plasma.
When the paired mates, ARGON and NEON, are "coupled," they produce LIGHTNING --they both form absolutely NO OXIDES!
Plasma is the 4th State of Matter! SLIDE SHOW from post grad!
Oct 27 2008 Plasma Globes at MIT https://cen.acs.org/articles/86/i43/Plasma-Globes.html
Most galaxies are moving AWAY from each other in space. However, the ANDROMEDA GALAXY [aka M-31] is moving towards our Galaxy at 190 miles/second. At its center is a tiny black hole disk that has sucked out the juice and star "blood plasma" of over 30 million suns just like our own. Now ANDROMEDA is headed for us and our sun! Andromeda is approaching at a 77.5 degree "tilt" from our line of sight.
ADROMEDA is a CANNIBAL Galaxy and a horrible glutton!
The Andromeda Galaxy, located some 2.5 million light-years from Earth, burns brightly in ultraviolet light in this image taken by NASA’s Galaxy Evolution Explorer. (Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech)
The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is the largest member of the Milky Way’s gang of galactic neighbors, known as the Local Group. With around a trillion suns worth of mass, Andromeda’s gravitational influence is a force to be reckoned with. And according to new research, no galaxy in the Local Group knows this better than M32, an oddball satellite galaxy now orbiting Andromeda. In a study recently published in Nature Astronomy, researchers showed that the “demonic” Andromeda Galaxy cannibalized one of the largest galaxies in the Local Group, turning it into the strange compact galaxy known as M32, that we see bound to Andromeda today. This massive collision stripped M32’s progenitor galaxy (dubbed M32p) of most of its mass – taking it from a hefty 25 billion solar masses to just a few billion solar masses.
April 15, 1998 http://www.srl.caltech.edu/ACE/ACENews/ACENews13.html
ACE News #13: Evidence for the Rare Isotopes 22Ne and 18O in Anomalous Cosmic Rays
Anomalous Cosmic Rays (ACRs) are a sample of the neutral interstellar medium (ISM) that has been swept into the heliosphere, ionized, picked up by the solar wind, and accelerated to energies of ~1 to ~50 MeV/nuc at the solar wind termination shock. To date seven elements have been unambiguously identified in ACRs: H, He, C, N, O, Ne, and Ar, all of which are partly neutral in the ISM because of their relatively high first ionization potentials. Isotope measurements of these elements can provide information on the present-day composition of the nearby interstellar medium and its evolution over the last 4.6 billion years since the formation of the solar system.
TABLE-- Anomalous Cosmic Rays (ACRs)
Plotted above are spectra for oxygen and neon isotopes measured by the Solar Isotope Spectrometer (SIS) during quiet-time days from 9/97 through 3/98. Above ~40 MeV/nuc these spectra are dominated by galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) which have spectra roughly proportional to kinetic energy below ~100 MeV/nuc (solid lines). At lower energies the ACR component exceeds the GCR component and sudden turn-ups are evident for all but 21Ne. The ACR spectra of the abundant isotopes 16O and 20Ne have been studied before, but these are the first reported spectra for the rare isotopes 18O and 22Ne in ACRs.
Quantitative interpretation of these ACR observations will require corrections for GCR contributions (solid lines above) and for small differences in the acceleration efficiency, but qualitative conclusions are already possible. We observe about one 18O for every 500 16O, generally consistent with the terrestrial 18O/16O ratio of 0.0020, but apparently less than the 18O/16O ratio of ~0.004 reported for the Galactic Center and based on spectroscopic studies.
The solar system includes several Ne components, including solar wind (with 22Ne/20Ne ~ 0.073) and the lunar/meteoritic components Ne-A (22Ne/20Ne ~ 0.12) and Ne-C (22Ne/20Ne ~0.09). Galactic cosmic rays are unusually rich in 22Ne; to produce the observed ratio of ~0.6 requires 22Ne/20Ne ~ 0.4 in GCR sources. While it is premature to compare the above data to the solar system Ne components, the observed ACR ratio of ~0.1 or less is clearly well below the GCR source ratio of ~0.4. This (as well as earlier SAMPEX and Voyager data) provides evidence that GCRs are not simply a sample of interstellar matter (as has been suggested), and supports models that include contributions from sources rich in 22Ne, such as Wolf-Rayet stars.
....contributed by Richard Mewaldt and Rick Leske of Caltech
"Xenon is one of a family of seven elements called the noble gases, some of which, such as helium and neon, are household names," said lead author Stavrou, now at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, about the team's paper in Physical Review Letters. "Their name comes from a kind of chemical aloofness; they normally do not combine, or react, with other elements."
Because xenon doesn't play well with others, it's deficiency in Earth's atmosphere—even in comparison to other, lighter noble gases, like krypton and argon, which theoretical predictions tell us should be even more depleted than xenon—is difficult to explain. That doesn't mean many haven't tried.
Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2018-03-xenon-iron-nickel-earth-core.html#jCp
SUPER COOLED LIQUID WATER -- Water vapour deposited on low-temperature (<140K) is known to form an amorphous phase, termed AMORPHOUS SOLID WATER (ASW), that is metastable with respect to crystalline ice. There is still a debate about whether this amorphous form of water transforms to a metastable liquid above the GLASS TRANSITION temperature at 136K and before crystallization near 160K. Furthermore, if the SUPER COOLED LIQUID WATER does melt into a liquid, a question remains as to whether this liquid is a metastable extension of supercooled liquid water or a …
DISTINCT THERMODYNAMIC PHASE.
--D2O is also called DEUTERIUM oxide, a "water" composed of deuterium (HEAVY HYDROGEN), a hydrogen isotope with a mass which is DOUBLED that of regular hydrogen), and Oxygen.
H20=Water SiO2=Silicon Dioxide CO2=Carbon Dioxide
2H=Heavy Hydrogen (is it real ‘science’ or some kind of occult kabbalah formula ?)
Heavy Water has a molecular weight of about 20. Water has a molecular weight of about 18.
Unmitigated and persistent "electrolysis" of 100,000 gallons of water, until only a few drops remain, yields nearly "pure" HEAVY WATER (deuterium oxide). These few drops of heavy water can now be used as a moderator of neutrons in NUCLEAR POWER plants.
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